There is now growing evidence from animal models for the possible control of different stages of the carcinogenic process by the beta-glucuronidase inhibitor D-glucaro-1,4-lactone and its precursors such as D-glucaric acid salts, D-glucarates. D-Glucaric acid is a natural, non-toxic compound produced in small amounts by mammals, including humans. It was recently found in some vegetables and fruits. D-Glucaro-1,4-lactone and D-glucarate exhibit potent antiproliferative properties in vivo. Some human subpopulations could have reduced risk of cancer development by ingesting food rich in D-glucaric acid or self-medication with D-glucarates alone or in combination with other chemopreventive agents.