The blackberry fruit: a review on its composition and chemistry, metabolism and bioavailability, and health benefits

J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Jun 13;60(23):5716-27. doi: 10.1021/jf203318p. Epub 2011 Dec 8.


Blackberry (Rubus sp.) fruit contains high levels of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds, mainly flavonols and ellagitannins, which contribute to its high antioxidant capacity and other biological activities. Blackberry phenolic composition and concentrations are known to be influenced by genetics, growing conditions, and maturation. Despite the current knowledge of their chemistry, research specific to blackberry phenolic compounds' health benefits, metabolism, bioavailability, and mechanism by which they confer health benefits is scarce. Blackberry phenolic compounds have protective effects on age-related neurodegenerative diseases and bone loss in vivo and can inhibit low-density lipoprotein and liposomal oxidation in vitro. Blackberry extracts have also exerted antimutagenic effects in vitro and in vivo by modifying cell signaling pathways and suppressing tumor promotion factors. However, the antiobesity, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties of blackberry phenolic compounds need investigation. Similarly, studies that elucidate the in vivo physiologically effective concentrations of blackberry phenolic compounds are necessary.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / analysis
  • Antioxidants / pharmacokinetics*
  • Biological Availability
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Phytochemicals / analysis
  • Phytochemicals / pharmacokinetics*
  • Plant Extracts / analysis
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacokinetics
  • Rosaceae / chemistry


  • Antioxidants
  • Phytochemicals
  • Plant Extracts