Transient cerebral ischemia dramatically activates small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO2/3) conjugation. In cells exposed to 6 h of transient oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD), a model of ischemia, SUMOylation increases profoundly between 0 and 30 min following re-oxygenation. To elucidate the effect of transient OGD on SUMO conjugation of target proteins, we exposed neuroblastoma B35 cells expressing HA-SUMO3 to transient OGD and used stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to quantify OGD-induced changes in levels of specific SUMOylated proteins. Lysates from control and OGD-treated cells were mixed equally, and HA-tagged proteins were immunoprecipitated and analyzed by 1D-SDS-PAGE-LC-MS/MS. We identified 188 putative SUMO3-conjugated proteins, including numerous transcription factors and coregulators, and PIAS2 and PIAS4 SUMO ligases, of which 22 were increased or decreased more than ±2-fold. In addition to SUMO3, the levels of protein-conjugated SUMO1 and SUMO2, as well as ubiquitin, were all increased. Importantly, protein ubiquitination induced by OGD was completely blocked by gene silencing of SUMO2/3. Collectively, these results suggest several mechanisms for OGD-modulated SUMOylation, point to a number of signaling pathways that may be targets of SUMO-based signaling and recovery from ischemic stress, and demonstrate a tightly controlled crosstalk between the SUMO and ubiquitin conjugation pathways.