Objective: To report real-time ophthalmoscopic findings during superselective intraophthalmic artery chemotherapy (SSIOAC) in a nonhuman primate model.
Methods: Six adult male Rhesus macaques (Macacca mulatta) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment cohorts: melphalan (5 mg/30 mL) or carboplatin (30 mg/30 mL). Each animal underwent 3 separate SSIOAC procedures at 3-week intervals. Digital retinal images were obtained during each infusion. Intravenous fluorescein angiography was performed immediately after each procedure.
Results: All SSIOAC procedures were successfully completed. Toxicities were equally distributed between drug cohorts. Systemic toxicities included mild bone marrow suppression in all animals and anorexia in 1. One animal had greater than 50% narrowing of the treated ophthalmic artery after its second infusion. All 18 procedures (100%) resulted in pulsatile optic nerve and choroid blanching, retinal artery narrowing, and retinal edema. Of the 18 procedures, retinal artery sheathing was found during 17 (94%), and retinal artery precipitates were seen in 10 (56%); choroidal hypoperfusion was seen by fluorescein angiogram in 18 (100%).
Conclusion: Real-time ophthalmic investigations are useful and, in our nonhuman primate model, indicate prevalent, acute ocular vascular toxicities during SSIOAC.
Clinical relevance: Real-time retinal imaging is feasible in a nonhuman primate model of SSIOAC. Application to SSIOAC in children may shed insight into reported vascular toxicities.