New insights in mucosal vaccine development

Vaccine. 2012 Jan 5;30(2):142-54. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.11.003. Epub 2011 Nov 12.


Mucosal surfaces are the major entrance for infectious pathogens and therefore mucosal immune responses serve as a first line of defence. Most current immunization procedures are obtained by parenteral injection and only few vaccines are administered by mucosal route, because of its low efficiency. However, targeting of mucosal compartments to induce protective immunity at both mucosal sites and systemic level represents a great challenge. Major efforts are made to develop new mucosal candidate vaccines by selecting appropriate antigens with high immunogenicity, designing new mucosal routes of administration and selecting immune-stimulatory adjuvant molecules. The aim of mucosal vaccines is to induce broad potent protective immunity by specific neutralizing antibodies at mucosal surfaces and by induction of cellular immunity. Moreover, an efficient mucosal vaccine would make immunization procedures easier and be better suited for mass administration. This review focuses on contemporary developments of mucosal vaccination approaches using different routes of administration.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage*
  • Administration, Mucosal
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Mucosal*
  • Vaccination / methods*
  • Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Vaccines / immunology*


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Vaccines