Epidemiological studies show higher BP level, lipid level and higher prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis and stenosis, in north than in south China. Urban populations have higher prevalence of HT than rural, high altitude dwellers usually have lower prevalence. Genetic differences start to affect BP from early childhood, children from higher BP parents are found more salt sensitive. Higher Na and Na/K, lower protein and Ca in the north, are important dietary factors in explaining north-south difference. Low prevalence of high altitude dwellers is found to be related with low salt intake, less stress perhaps also hypoxia. CVD Community control program has started since 1969, from 1969-1989, eleven such programs have been established in Beijing covering a total population of 750,000. Encouraging results in reduction of CVD mortality and morbidity rates have been obtained. Primary prevention by restriction of Na and supplementation of calcium has been tried and found to be eligible preventive measures.