Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant public health problem, and progression to end-stage renal disease leads to dramatic increases in morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying progression of disease are poorly defined, and current noninvasive markers incompletely correlate with disease progression. Therefore, there is a great need for discovering novel markers for CKD. We utilized a glycoproteomic profiling approach to test the hypothesis that the urinary glycoproteome profile from subjects with CKD would be distinct from healthy controls. N-linked glycoproteins were isolated and enriched from the urine of healthy controls and subjects with CKD. This strategy identified several differentially expressed proteins in CKD, including a diverse array of proteins with endopeptidase inhibitor activity, protein binding functions, and acute-phase/immune-stress response activity supporting the proposal that inflammation may play a central role in CKD. Additionally, several of these proteins have been previously linked to kidney disease implicating a mechanistic role in disease pathogenesis. Collectively, our observations suggest that the human urinary glycoproteome may serve as a discovery source for novel mechanism-based biomarkers of CKD.