The lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory response in RAW264.7 cells is attenuated by an unsaturated fatty acid-bovine serum albumin complex and enhanced by a saturated fatty acid-bovine serum albumin complex

Inflamm Res. 2012 Feb;61(2):151-60. doi: 10.1007/s00011-011-0399-1. Epub 2011 Nov 18.


Objective: A 1:1 ratio of fatty acid (FA)-albumin complex was chosen to mimic physiological conditions, and the effects of FA-bovine serum albumin (BSA) complexes were tested in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

Methods: Nitric oxide (NO) and various proteins/factors in RAW264.7 cells were quantified as follows: NO by the Griess assay; prostaglandin (PG) E(2), interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α by ELISA; inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 by Western blotting; and NF-κB and CD14/TLR4 by Western blotting or flow cytometry.

Results: BSA- or FA-BSA-treated RAW264.7 cells without LPS stimulation did not show any significant changes in NO or the tested proteins/factors and thus did not have any pro-inflammatory responses. Pre-treatment with unsaturated FA-BSA complexes significantly decreased the production of LPS-induced NO, PGE(2), IL-6 and TNF-α, the expression of iNOS, COX-2 and CD14, IκB degradation and NF-κB translocation. On the contrary, pre-treatment with saturated FA-BSA complexes enhanced these LPS-induced pro-inflammatory factors and the subsequent responses.

Conclusions: We concluded that unsaturated FA-BSA complexes, but not saturated FA-BSA complexes, exert an inhibitory effect on the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory response and that this effect may be partially mediated through suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway. We suggest that an increase of unsaturated FA-BSA complexes may enhance the host's defense against bacterial infection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Line
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 / analysis
  • Dinoprostone / analysis
  • Fatty Acids / chemistry
  • Fatty Acids / immunology*
  • Fatty Acids / pharmacology
  • Fatty Acids, Unsaturated / chemistry
  • Fatty Acids, Unsaturated / immunology*
  • Fatty Acids, Unsaturated / pharmacology
  • Inflammation / immunology*
  • Interleukin-6 / immunology
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors / analysis
  • Lipopolysaccharides / immunology*
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Macrophages / immunology*
  • Mice
  • NF-kappa B / analysis
  • Nitric Oxide / analysis
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / analysis
  • Serum Albumin, Bovine / chemistry
  • Serum Albumin, Bovine / immunology*
  • Serum Albumin, Bovine / pharmacology
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / analysis


  • Fatty Acids
  • Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
  • Interleukin-6
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • NF-kappa B
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Serum Albumin, Bovine
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Ptgs2 protein, mouse
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Dinoprostone