Comparison of multi-drug injection versus placebo after hallux valgus surgery

Foot Ankle Int. 2011 Sep;32(9):856-60. doi: 10.3113/FAI.2011.0856.


Background: Hallux valgus surgery is followed by a significant amount of postoperative pain. Local multi-drug injection can be an option for pain control, but few clinical studies exist.

Methods: Between May 2008 and July 2009, 30 consecutive patients (60 feet) received simultaneous bilateral proximal osteotomies for the correction of hallux valgus deformities. Each patient received local infiltration of the test solution made with ropivacaine, morphine, ketorolac, and epinephrine on one foot and same amount of normal saline on the other foot. The test side and the control side were randomly selected and both the patient and the surgeon remained blinded until the end of the data collection.

Results: The multi-drug injection resulted in significantly less pain at 4 hours after the operation through the night of the first postoperative day. The difference in visual analogue scale (VAS) between the two sides was most significant at 8 hours after the operation, and then gradually decreased through the first and second postoperative day. Mean satisfaction VAS was significantly higher on the injection side (8.2+/-0.9) compared to the control side (6.2+/-1.9, p<0.0001).

Conclusion: Local multi-drug injection was easy to perform and safe and effective in reducing pain and enhancing patient satisfaction after hallux valgus surgery.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Amides / administration & dosage
  • Anesthetics, Local / administration & dosage*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage
  • Epinephrine / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Hallux Valgus / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Ketorolac Tromethamine / administration & dosage
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Morphine / administration & dosage
  • Pain Measurement
  • Pain, Postoperative / prevention & control*
  • Patient Satisfaction
  • Ropivacaine


  • Amides
  • Anesthetics, Local
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Ketorolac Tromethamine
  • Morphine
  • Ropivacaine
  • Epinephrine