Significance: Lysosomes are organelles in which cellular degradation occurs in a controlled manner, separated from other cellular components. As several pathways terminate in the lysosome, lysosomal dysfunction has a profound impact on cell homeostasis, resulting in manifold pathological situations, including infectious diseases, neurodegeneration, and aging.
Recent advances: Lysosomal biology demonstrates that in addition to regulating the final steps of catabolic processes, lysosomes are essential up-stream modulators of autophagy and other essential lysosomal pathways.
Future directions and critical issues: Lysosomal membrane permeabilization offers therapeutic potential in the treatment of cancer, though the molecular regulators of this process remain obscure. This review focuses on recent discoveries in lysosomal function and dysfunction, primarily in in vivo situations.