Cancer is a genetic disease and this concept is now widely exploited by both scientists and clinicians to design new targeted molecules. Indeed many data have already allowed us to ameliorate not only our knowledge about cancer onset, but also about patients treatment. Correlation between mutations in cancer alleles and drug response is a key point to identify drugs that match the genetic profile of each individual tumors. On the other hand, experience derived from inhibition of tyrosine kinase receptors has pointed out that targeted treatment is really successful only in a small subset of tumors. The latter are eventually addicted to those genetic alterations which are responsible for receptors activation and for the continued expression of their signalling. Overall these observations provide a strong rationale for a molecular-based diagnosis and patients selection for targeted therapies. This review analyses the current state of the art of molecularly-tailored pharmacological approach to lung cancer, one of the biggest killers among human solid tumors. Main relevance is addressed to genetic lesions activating the EGFR pathway transducers, focusing on their role as markers of targeted drug response.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.