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Review
, 12 (11), 234

A World in a Grain of Sand: Human History From Genetic Data

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Review

A World in a Grain of Sand: Human History From Genetic Data

Vincenza Colonna et al. Genome Biol.

Abstract

Genome-wide genotypes and sequences are enriching our understanding of the past 50,000 years of human history and providing insights into earlier periods largely inaccessible to mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal studies.To see a world in a grain of sand ...William Blake, Auguries of Innocence.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Widely used population samples and worldwide genetic diversity. (a) Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) [30], (b) HapMap [60], (c) 1000 Genomes Project [7], (d) Genetic diversity in the HGDP samples [26]. In (a-c), samples are represented by circles with an area proportional to the sample size, placed according to their sampling location, but colored according to the predominant continental ancestry. Numbers and acronyms identify individual samples and details are given in Additional file 1; asterisks in (c) indicate populations that are still being collected. In (d), diversity measurements [26] were interpolated between sampling sites (dots); Australia and Greenland are grayed out because of a lack of data. See Additional file 1 for further details.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Representation of individual and population relationships in the combined HGDP and 1000 Genomes samples. (a) Principal components plot, where each dot represents a population, colored according to ancestry as in Figure 1. (b) STRUCTURE-like plot, where each thin vertical line represents an individual with inferred ancestry from five clusters, k1 to k5. Individuals are grouped by population, and the regions of origin are indicated. Oc, Oceania; Nat. Am., Native American. See Additional file 1 for further details.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Genetic relationships between Jewish Diaspora (J) and nearby non-Jewish (host, H) populations. (a) mtDNA analysis; (b) Y-chromosomal analysis; (c) autosomal SNP genotype analysis. Lineages (a,b) or ancestry components (c) were divided into five classes, and in each panel one class (red) is present at higher frequency in most Jewish populations (J) than in the corresponding host population (H), illustrating a genetic heritage component shared by most Jewish populations. See Additional file 1 for further details.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Archaeological and genetic evidence for the peopling of Greenland. (a) Archaeological evidence suggests two waves of migration to Greenland: Paleo-Eskimo (Saqqaq) about 4,500 YA (red) and Neo-Eskimo (Inuit) about 1,000 YA (black). The place of origin of the Saqqaq migration was unknown. (b) Genetic evidence suggests a Saqqaq origin in Siberia. The modern populations most similar to the Saqqaq mtDNA, Y chromosome and autosomes are all located in Siberia or the Aleut Islands. These maps represent initial and final locations, but not the route taken.

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