Growth inhibition and apoptotic/necrotic phenotype was observed in nanogold particle (AuNP)-treated human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. To elucidate the underlying cellular mechanisms, proteomic techniques including two-dimensional electrophoresis/mass spectrometry and protein microarrays were utilized to study the differentially expressed proteome and phosphoproteome, respectively. Systems biology analysis of the proteomic data revealed that unfolded protein-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response was the predominant event. Concomitant with transcriptomic analysis using mRNA expression, microarrays show ER stress response in the AuNP-treated cells. The ER stress protein markers' expression assay unveiled AuNPs as an efficient cellular ER stress elicitor. Upon ER stress, cellular responses, including reactive oxygen species increase, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and mitochondria damage, chronologically occurred in the AuNP-treated cells. Conclusively, this study demonstrates that AuNPs cause cell death through induction of unmanageable ER stress.