Classification schemes of cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas

Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2012 Jan;23(1):55-62. doi: 10.1016/


The clinical presentation of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs), in particular the associated risk of intracranial hemorrhage, shows a strong correlation with their pattern of venous drainage. The two most commonly used and clinically accepted DAVF classifications are the Merland-Cognard classification and the Borden classification, both based on the morphology of the venous drainage. A revised classification that grades DAVFs through a combination of angiographic and clinical features has also been proposed. This article offers a review of these various classification schemes, and discusses their application to treatment decision making.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations / classification*
  • Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations / therapy*
  • Cerebral Angiography
  • Cerebral Arteries / abnormalities
  • Cerebral Veins / abnormalities
  • Decision Making
  • Embolization, Therapeutic
  • Humans
  • Risk Factors