Iodine nutrition in pregnancy and lactation

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2011 Dec;40(4):765-77. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2011.08.001.


Adequate iodine intake is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones that are important for normal fetal and infant neurodevelopment. In this review, we discuss iodine physiology during pregnancy and lactation, methods to assess iodine sufficiency, the importance of adequate iodine nutrition, studies of iodine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation, the consequences of hypothyroidism during pregnancy, the current status of iodine nutrition in the United States, the global efforts toward achieving universal iodine sufficiency, and substances that may interfere with iodine use.

MeSH terms

  • Cognition Disorders
  • Diet
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Female
  • Fetal Development
  • Humans
  • Hypothyroidism / complications
  • Iodine / administration & dosage*
  • Iodine / deficiency
  • Iodine / pharmacokinetics
  • Lactation*
  • Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*
  • Nutritional Requirements
  • Nutritional Status
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary / administration & dosage
  • Thyroid Hormones / biosynthesis
  • United States


  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary
  • Thyroid Hormones
  • iodized salt
  • Iodine