Trithorax group proteins: switching genes on and keeping them active

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2011 Nov 23;12(12):799-814. doi: 10.1038/nrm3230.


Cellular memory is provided by two counteracting groups of chromatin proteins termed Trithorax group (TrxG) and Polycomb group (PcG) proteins. TrxG proteins activate transcription and are perhaps best known because of the involvement of the TrxG protein MLL in leukaemia. However, in terms of molecular analysis, they have lived in the shadow of their more famous counterparts, the PcG proteins. Recent advances have improved our understanding of TrxG protein function and demonstrated that the heterogeneous group of TrxG proteins is of critical importance in the epigenetic regulation of the cell cycle, senescence, DNA damage and stem cell biology.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism*
  • DNA / metabolism
  • DNA Damage
  • Epigenesis, Genetic*
  • Humans
  • Protein Binding
  • Signal Transduction


  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone
  • DNA