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, 20 (4), 441-8

Sephardic Signature in Haplogroup T Mitochondrial DNA

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Sephardic Signature in Haplogroup T Mitochondrial DNA

Felice L Bedford. Eur J Hum Genet.

Abstract

A rare combination of mutations within mitochondrial DNA subhaplogroup T2e is identified as affiliated with Sephardic Jews, a group that has received relatively little attention. Four investigations were pursued: Search of the motif in 250 000 control region records across 8 databases, comparison of frequencies of T subhaplogroups (T1, T2b, T2c, T2e, T4, T(*)) across 11 diverse populations, creation of a phylogenic median-joining network from public T2e control region entries, and analysis of one Sephardic mitochondrial full genomic sequence with the motif. It was found that the rare motif belonged only to Sephardic descendents (Turkey, Bulgaria), to inhabitants of North American regions known for secret Spanish-Jewish colonization, or were consistent with Sephardic ancestry. The incidence of subhaplogroup T2e decreased from the Western Arabian Peninsula to Italy to Spain and into Western Europe. The ratio of sister subhaplogroups T2e to T2b was found to vary 40-fold across populations from a low in the British Isles to a high in Saudi Arabia with the ratio in Sephardim more similar to Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Italy than to hosts Spain and Portugal. Coding region mutations of 2308G and 14499T may locate the Sephardic signature within T2e, but additional samples and reworking of current T2e phylogenetic branch structure is needed. The Sephardic Turkish community has a less pronounced founder effect than some Ashkenazi groups considered singly (eg, Polish), but other comparisons of interest await comparable averaging. Registries of signatures will benefit the study of populations with a large number of smaller-size founders.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Phylogenetic network of hypervariable region 1 of all 119 entries of mitochondrial DNA subhaplogroup T2e (T5) from the public database mitosearch and the sequences of the Sephardic signature. The size of the circle is proportional to the number of entries, and the distance between connected nodes reflects the number of mutations that separate them. Nodes repositioned slightly to allow space for the labels. Sephardic signature circles shown filled in dark gray. Created with Network version 4.6.0.0, Fluxus Technology Ltd.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Prevalence of subhaplogroup T2e in different regional data samples. (a) The proportion of T2b to T2e in each population. A ratio of 1 (horizontal axis) reflects equal incidence of T2e and T2b, values <1 indicate greater incidence of T2e, and values >1 indicate greater incidence of T2b than T2e. (b) The incidence of T2e as a percentage of all haplogroup T present in the study. Abbreviations: Saudi=Saudi Arabia, W Saudi=West Saudi Arabia, SEPH (shown as lighter shaded bars)=Ottoman Sephardic, ASH=Ashkenazi, Nat Gen=National Genographic Project, Brit=British and Irish Isles, J=Jewish.

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