Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 108 (5), 507-14

Origins of Domestic Dog in Southern East Asia Is Supported by Analysis of Y-chromosome DNA


Origins of Domestic Dog in Southern East Asia Is Supported by Analysis of Y-chromosome DNA

Z-L Ding et al. Heredity (Edinb).


Global mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data indicates that the dog originates from domestication of wolf in Asia South of Yangtze River (ASY), with minor genetic contributions from dog-wolf hybridisation elsewhere. Archaeological data and autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism data have instead suggested that dogs originate from Europe and/or South West Asia but, because these datasets lack data from ASY, evidence pointing to ASY may have been overlooked. Analyses of additional markers for global datasets, including ASY, are therefore necessary to test if mtDNA phylogeography reflects the actual dog history and not merely stochastic events or selection. Here, we analyse 14,437 bp of Y-chromosome DNA sequence in 151 dogs sampled worldwide. We found 28 haplotypes distributed in five haplogroups. Two haplogroups were universally shared and included three haplotypes carried by 46% of all dogs, but two other haplogroups were primarily restricted to East Asia. Highest genetic diversity and virtually complete phylogenetic coverage was found within ASY. The 151 dogs were estimated to originate from 13-24 wolf founders, but there was no indication of post-domestication dog-wolf hybridisations. Thus, Y-chromosome and mtDNA data give strikingly similar pictures of dog phylogeography, most importantly that roughly 50% of the gene pools are shared universally but only ASY has nearly the full range of genetic diversity, such that the gene pools in all other regions may derive from ASY. This corroborates that ASY was the principal, and possibly sole region of wolf domestication, that a large number of wolves were domesticated, and that subsequent dog-wolf hybridisation contributed modestly to the dog gene pool.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Phylogenetic and geographical distribution of haplotypes. (A) Most parsimonious phylogenetic tree. Haplotypes (symbolized by circles for dog, squares for wolf and hexagons for coyote; black dots are hypothetical intermediates) are separated by one substitutional step. The area of the circles is proportional to the frequency of the haplotype among dogs. Haplogroups (see text) are indicated by colour; haplotype 2* cannot be assigned to HG1 or HG3 and therefore white. (B) Geographical distribution of haplogroups. Graphs show number of individuals carrying each haplogroup, colours referring to haplogroups according to (a). Populations: a, Scandinavia; b, Britain; c, Central Europe; d, South Europe; e, Fertile Cr; f, SW Asia East; g, Northern Africa; h, Southern Africa; i, Siberia; j, North China; k, Central China; l, South China; m, Southeast Asia (l and m jointly forming ASY); n, Japan; o, America. For definitions of geographical regions, see Note to Table 1, and Materials and methods. (C) Trees (see a) showing representation (blue, shared with other regions; yellow, unique to the region; white, not present) and frequency (proportional to area) of haplotypes among dogs in geographical regions. Europe C/S, Central and South Europe; SE Asia, Southeast Asia.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 27 articles

See all "Cited by" articles


    1. Bannasch DL, Bannasch MJ, Ryun JR, Famula TR, Pedersen NC. Y chromosome haplotype analysis in purebred dogs. Mamm genome. 2005;16:273–280. - PubMed
    1. Bellwood P. First Farmers: The origins of Agricultural Societies. Blackwell Publishing: UK; 2005.
    1. Boyko AR, Boyko RH, Boyko CM, Parker HG, Castelhano M, Corey L, et al. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2009;106:13903–13908. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Chaix L. 2000A preboreal dog from the northern Alps (Savoie, France)In: Crockford SJ (eds).Dogs Through Time: An Archaeological Perspective British archaeological reports: Oxford; 49–59.
    1. Clutton-Brock J. 1995Origins of the dog: domestication and early historyIn: Serpell J (eds).The Domestic Dog, its Evolution, Behavior and Interactions With People Cambridge University Press: Cambridge; 7–20.

Publication types


Associated data