Indigo--a natural pigment for high performance ambipolar organic field effect transistors and circuits

Adv Mater. 2012 Jan 17;24(3):375-80. doi: 10.1002/adma.201102619. Epub 2011 Nov 23.


Millenniums-old natural dye indigo--a "new" ambipolar organic semiconductor. Indigo shows balanced electron and hole mobilities of 1 × 10(-2) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and good stability against degradation in air. Inverters with gains of 105 in the first and 110 in the third quadrant are demonstrated. Fabricated entirely from natural and biodegradable compounds, these devices show the large potential of such materials for green organic electronics.

Keywords: ambipolar semiconductors; biodegradable electronics; natural materials; sustainable electronics.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biological Products / chemistry*
  • Coloring Agents / chemistry*
  • Electrochemistry
  • Indigo Carmine / chemistry*
  • Semiconductors*
  • Tin Compounds / chemistry


  • Biological Products
  • Coloring Agents
  • Tin Compounds
  • indium tin oxide
  • Indigo Carmine