Cardiac autonomic imbalance in newly diagnosed and established diabetes is associated with markers of adipose tissue inflammation

Exp Diabetes Res. 2012:2012:878760. doi: 10.1155/2012/878760. Epub 2011 Nov 1.


Introduction: Diabetics die from cardiovascular disease at a much greater rate than nondiabetics. Cardiac autonomic imbalance predicts increased cardiovascular risk and mortality. We studied the relationship between cardiac autonomic imbalance and adipose tissue-derived inflammation in newly diagnosed and established type 2 diabetes.

Materials and methods: Non-diabetics, newly diagnosed diabetics, and established diabetics were included. Anthropomorphic and biochemical measurements were obtained, and insulin resistance was approximated. Cardiac autonomic function was assessed using conventional measures and with power spectral analysis of heart rate.

Results and discussion: Heart rate variability was reduced in all diabetics. Interleukin-6 was higher in diabetics, as was the high molecular weight adiponectin-to-leptin ratio. Interleukin-6 correlated negatively with measures of autonomic balance. Ratios of adiponectin to leptin correlated positively with measures of autonomic balance. Cardiac autonomic imbalance and inflammation occur early in diabetes and are interrelated.

Conclusions: Cardiac autonomic imbalance correlates with the adipose tissue-derived inflammation seen early in type 2 diabetes.

MeSH terms

  • Adiponectin / blood
  • Adipose Tissue / physiopathology*
  • Autonomic Nervous System Diseases / etiology*
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology
  • Diabetic Cardiomyopathies / etiology
  • Heart / innervation*
  • Heart Rate
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / complications
  • Inflammation / diagnosis*
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Interleukin-6 / blood
  • Leptin / blood


  • Adiponectin
  • Biomarkers
  • Interleukin-6
  • Leptin