Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy: comparison between manual and computer-assisted techniques

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2013 Jan;21(1):113-9. doi: 10.1007/s00167-011-1785-5. Epub 2011 Nov 24.


Purpose: The purpose of our study was to compare clinical and radiological results of two groups of patients treated for medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee with either conventional or computer-assisted open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO). Goals of surgical treatment were a correction of the mechanical axis between 2° and 6° of valgus and a modification of posterior tibial slope between -2° and +2°.

Methods: Twenty-four patients (27 knees) affected by varus knee deformity and operated with HTO were prospectively followed-up. They were randomly divided in two groups, A (11 patients, conventional treatment) and B (13 patients, navigated treatment). The American Knee Society Score and the Modified Cincinnati Rating System Questionnaire were used for clinical assessment. All patients were radiologically evaluated with a comparative lower limb weight-bearing digital radiograph, a standard digital anteroposterior, a latero-lateral radiograph of the knee, and a Rosenberg view.

Results: Patients were followed-up at a mean of 39 months. Clinical evaluation showed no statistical difference (n.s.) between the two groups. Radiological results showed an 86% reproducibility in achieving a mechanical axis of 182°-186° in group B compared to a 23% in group A (p = 0.0392); furthermore, in group B, we achieved a modification of posterior tibial slope between -2° and +2° in 100% of patients, while in group A, this goal was achieved only in 24% of cases (p = 0.0021).

Conclusion: High tibial osteotomy with navigator is more accurate and reproducible in the correction of the deformity compared to standard technique.

Level of evidence: Therapeutic study, Level II.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Genu Varum / complications
  • Genu Varum / diagnostic imaging
  • Genu Varum / rehabilitation
  • Genu Varum / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Knee Joint / diagnostic imaging
  • Knee Joint / surgery*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteoarthritis, Knee / complications
  • Osteoarthritis, Knee / diagnostic imaging
  • Osteoarthritis, Knee / rehabilitation
  • Osteoarthritis, Knee / surgery*
  • Osteotomy / methods*
  • Osteotomy / rehabilitation
  • Prospective Studies
  • Radiography
  • Surgery, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Surgery, Computer-Assisted / rehabilitation
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tibia / diagnostic imaging
  • Tibia / surgery*
  • Treatment Outcome