DJ-1 as a potential biomarker for the development of biocompatible multiwalled carbon nanotubes

Int J Nanomedicine. 2011;6:2689-95. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S25471. Epub 2011 Nov 4.


Background: In the present study, we investigated whether DJ-1 could serve as a biomarker for assessing the biocompatibility of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), using the highly purified carbon nanotube, HTT2800.

Methods: Using Western blot analysis, we determined DJ-1 protein levels in two different types of cells (one capable and the other incapable of HTT2800 endocytosis). Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we also investigated the ability of purified nanotubes to alter DJ-1 mRNA levels.

Results: We demonstrated that the DJ-1 protein concentration was reduced, regardless of the cytotoxic activity of intracellular HTT2800. Furthermore, HTT2800 decreased the DJ-1 mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. This decrease in DJ-1 mRNA levels was not observed in the case of Sumi black or cup-stacked carbon nanotubes.

Conclusion: These data indicate that modification of DJ-1 expression is caused by the cell response to MWCNTs. We conclude that DJ-1 is a promising candidate biomarker for the development of biocompatible MWCNTs.

Keywords: DJ-1 protein; Western blot; multiwalled carbon nanotubes; quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biocompatible Materials / chemistry*
  • Biocompatible Materials / pharmacology
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Survival
  • Down-Regulation / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / analysis*
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism
  • Materials Testing / methods*
  • Nanotubes, Carbon / chemistry*
  • Oncogene Proteins / analysis*
  • Oncogene Proteins / genetics
  • Oncogene Proteins / metabolism
  • Protein Deglycase DJ-1
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction


  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Biomarkers
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Nanotubes, Carbon
  • Oncogene Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger
  • PARK7 protein, human
  • Protein Deglycase DJ-1