Background: Although decennial adult boosters of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids are recommended in Canada and the United States, a second dose of pertussis vaccine during adulthood is not currently recommended.
Methods: This open-label, multicenter study compared the safety and immunogenicity of a first dose of an adult formulation of tetanus, diphtheria, and acelluar pertussis vaccine (Tdap) with a repeat dose of Tdap in adults who had received Tdap 10 years previously.
Results: A total of 769 participants ranging in age from 20 to 72 years took part in this study; 92.3% of naïve and 92.7% of repeat-dose participants had at least one solicited adverse event. Injection-site pain (84.4% and 87.8%), erythema (29.7% and 23.1%), and swelling (23.3% and 20.5%), and myalgia (53.5% and 60.1%), headache (37.6% and 40.6%), malaise (29.0% and 29.4%), and fever (4.9% and 4.2%) were the most common solicited adverse events reported in the naïve and repeat-dose groups, respectively. Postvaccination antibody levels ≥0.1 IU/mL were achieved by 99.7% of the naïve-group participants and all of the repeat-dose participants for tetanus and 96.1% of the naïve group and 98.5% of the repeat-dose group for diphtheria, both meeting the predefined noninferiority criteria. For pertussis antibodies, anti-PT (89.2 EU/mL vs. 116 EU/mL) was higher in the repeat-dose group, anti-FHA (249 vs. 214) and anti-PRN (216 vs. 266) were similar, and anti-FIM (1015 vs. 779) was higher in the naïve group. Noninferiority criteria were met for all antigens except for anti-FIM.
Conclusion: A repeat dose of Tdap vaccine 10 years after the first dose was well tolerated and immunogenic in adults (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00712959).
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