Epidemiologic and laboratory animal studies have suggested that the availability of vitamin B6 modulates cancer risk. The means by which B6 mediates this effect is not known with any surety but it has been reported that high dietary vitamin B6 attenuates and low dietary vitamin B6 increases the risk of cancer. In fact vitamin B6 is widely distributed in foods and overt deficiency of this vitamin is not common. Nevertheless, marginal or secondary vitamin B6 deficiency, which might have an adverse effect on carcinogenesis, is rather common especially among old adults and alcoholics. This chapter addressed currently available information regarding the relationship between vitamin B6 and cancer.