Ultra-sonication-assisted solvent extraction of quercetin glycosides from 'Idared' apple peels

Molecules. 2011 Nov 25;16(12):9783-91. doi: 10.3390/molecules16129783.


Quercetin and quercetin glycosides are physiologically active flavonol molecules that have been attributed numerous health benefits. Recovery of such molecules from plant matrices depends on a variety of factors including polarity of the extraction solvent. Among the solvents of a wide range of dielectric constants, methanol recovered the most quercetin and its glycosides from dehydrated 'Idared' apple peels. When ultra-sonication was employed to facilitate the extraction, exposure of 15 min of ultrasound wavelengths of dehydrated apple peel powder in 80% to 100% (v/v) methanol in 1:50 (w:v) solid to solvent ratio provided the optimum extraction conditions for quercetin and its glycosides. Acidification of extraction solvent with 0.1% (v/v) or higher concentrations of HCl led to hydrolysis of naturally occurring quercetin glycosides into the aglycone as an extraction artifact.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Glycosides / isolation & purification*
  • Hydrochloric Acid / chemistry
  • Malus / chemistry*
  • Methanol / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification*
  • Quercetin / isolation & purification*
  • Solvents / chemistry*
  • Sonication / methods*
  • Time Factors
  • Ultrasonics / methods*
  • Waste Products


  • Glycosides
  • Plant Extracts
  • Solvents
  • Waste Products
  • Quercetin
  • Hydrochloric Acid
  • Methanol