Three-dimensional measurement of rearfoot motion during running

J Biomech. 1990;23(9):933-40. doi: 10.1016/0021-9290(90)90358-a.


Excessive ranges of motion during running have been speculated to be connected to injuries to the lower extremities. Movement of the foot and lower leg has commonly been studied with two-dimensional techniques. However, differences in the alignment of the longitudinal axis of the foot with the camera axis will produce measurement errors for projected angles of the lower extremities. A three-dimensional approach would not have this limitation. The purpose of this study is to present a three-dimensional model for calculation of angles between lower leg and foot, lower leg and ground, and foot and ground, and to compare results from treadmill running derived from this model with results derived from a two-dimensional model for different alignment angles between foot axis and camera axis. A two camera Selspot system was used to obtain three-dimensional information on motion of the studied segments. It was found that several two-dimensional variables measured from a posterior view are very sensitive to the alignment angle between the foot and the camera axis. Some variables change as much as 1 degrees for every 2 degrees of change of the alignment angle. The large influence of rotations other than the measured one in two-dimensional measurements makes advisable the use of a three-dimensional model when studying motion between foot and lower leg during running.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Calibration
  • Foot / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Leg / physiology*
  • Movement / physiology
  • Reference Values
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Rotation
  • Running*