Emerging treatments for choroidal metastases

Surv Ophthalmol. 2011 Nov-Dec;56(6):511-21. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2011.05.001.


It has been over a century since Perls described the first case of choroidal metastasis. For the next six decades only 230 cases were described in the literature. Today, however, ocular metastasis is recognized as the most common intraocular malignancy. Thanks to recent advances in treatment options for metastatic disease, patients are living longer, and choroidal metastases will become an increasingly important issue for oncologists and ophthalmologists alike. We summarize the current knowledge of choroidal metastases and examine their emerging systemic and local therapies. Targeted therapies for metastatic lung, breast, and colon cancer--the most common causes of choroidal metastases--are reviewed in detail with the goal of identifying the most effective treatment strategies.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis
  • Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Brain Neoplasms / secondary
  • Brain Neoplasms / therapy
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / diagnostic imaging
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / therapy*
  • Choroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • Choroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • Choroid Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Cranial Irradiation
  • Docetaxel
  • Erlotinib Hydrochloride
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • Lung Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Middle Aged
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Quinazolines / therapeutic use
  • Taxoids / therapeutic use
  • Ultrasonography
  • Visual Acuity / drug effects


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Quinazolines
  • Taxoids
  • Docetaxel
  • Erlotinib Hydrochloride