In vitro activities of natural products against oral Candida isolates from denture wearers

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011 Nov 26:11:119. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-119.


Background: Candida-associated denture stomatitis is a frequent infectious disease. Treatment of this oral condition is difficult because failures and recurrences are common. The aim of this study was to test the in vitro antifungal activity of pure constituents of essentials oils.

Methods: Eight terpenic derivatives (carvacrol, farnesol, geraniol, linalool, menthol, menthone, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol), a phenylpropanoid (eugenol), a phenethyl alcohol (tyrosol) and fluconazole were evaluated against 38 Candida isolated from denture-wearers and 10 collection Candida strains by the CLSI M27-A3 broth microdilution method.

Results: Almost all the tested compounds showed antifungal activity with MIC ranges of 0.03-0.25% for eugenol and linalool, 0.03-0.12% for geraniol, 0.06-0.5% for menthol, α-terpineol and terpinen-4-ol, 0.03-0.5% for carvacrol, and 0.06-4% for menthone. These compounds, with the exception of farnesol, menthone and tyrosol, showed important in vitro activities against the fluconazole-resistant and susceptible-dose dependent Candida isolates.

Conclusions: Carvacrol, eugenol, geraniol, linalool and terpinen-4-ol were very active in vitro against oral Candida isolates. Their fungistatic and fungicidal activities might convert them into promising alternatives for the topic treatment of oral candidiasis and denture stomatitis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antifungal Agents / pharmacology*
  • Biological Products / pharmacology*
  • Candida / drug effects*
  • Candida / isolation & purification
  • Candidiasis, Oral / drug therapy
  • Candidiasis, Oral / etiology
  • Candidiasis, Oral / microbiology*
  • Dental Restoration Wear / adverse effects*
  • Humans
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Oils, Volatile / pharmacology*
  • Stomatitis, Denture / drug therapy
  • Stomatitis, Denture / etiology
  • Stomatitis, Denture / microbiology*


  • Antifungal Agents
  • Biological Products
  • Oils, Volatile