Nausea and vomiting in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis

Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2012 Mar;24(3):217-22, e103. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2982.2011.01828.x. Epub 2011 Nov 27.

Abstract

Background: Nausea and vomiting are frequent symptoms of gastroparesis. The aim of this study was to characterize nausea and vomiting in gastroparesis and to compare nausea and vomiting in patients with diabetic and idiopathic gastroparetics. We also quantitated the number of episodes of vomiting per day and the hours of nausea per day.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with gastroparesis at Temple University Hospital between May 2009 and December 2010 completed the Patient Assessment of Upper GI Symptoms questionnaire along with questionnaires about nausea and vomiting.

Key results: A total of 157 patients [43 diabetic (DG) and 114 idiopathic gastroparetics (IG)] comprised the study group. Nausea was present in 91% of DG and 90% of IG (P = 0.822). Nausea symptom severity score was 3.51 ± 0.24 in DG and 3.42 ± 0.15 in IG (P = 0.362). DG patients reported 8.1 ± 1.2 compared to 7.9 ± 0.8 in IG (P = 0.44). Vomiting was present in 72% of DG and 55% of IG (P = 0.083). Vomiting symptom severity score was 2.69 ± 0.34 in DG and 1.83 ± 0.21 in IG (P = 0.010). DG patients reported 7.3 ± 1.7 vomiting episodes per day compared to 3.5 ± 0.9 in IG (P = 0.027). Both nausea and vomiting had a significant correlation with reduced quality of life.

Conclusions & inferences: Nausea and vomiting are significant symptoms of gastroparesis. Vomiting was greater in DG compared with IG, both in terms of severity score and number of vomiting episodes, whereas nausea severity was similar. Hours of nausea per day and episodes of vomiting per week appear to be useful parameters for assessing symptoms of gastroparesis. Nausea and vomiting have a significant impact on quality of life.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Diabetes Complications / physiopathology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Gastric Emptying / physiology
  • Gastroparesis / complications*
  • Gastroparesis / etiology*
  • Gastroparesis / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nausea / etiology*
  • Nausea / physiopathology
  • Quality of Life
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vomiting / etiology*
  • Vomiting / physiopathology