Food insecurity is related to glycemic control deterioration in patients with type 2 diabetes

Clin Nutr. 2012 Apr;31(2):250-4. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2011.09.014. Epub 2011 Nov 26.


Background & aims: Poor glycemic control has been shown to play a major role in the development and progression of diabetes complications. This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that food insecurity may deteriorate glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of food insecurity among type 2 diabetics in a major hospital that serves the area of northern Jordan, and to investigate its relation to glycemic control.

Methods: A sample of 843 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes participated in the study. Socioeconomic and health data were collected by interview-based questionnaire. Weight and height were measured by a trained nutritionist. Dietary assessment was done using food frequency questionnaire. Dietary data were processed using food processor software. Food insecurity was assessed by the short form of the U.S. food security survey module. Glycemic control was assessed by measuring glycosyated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Statistical procedures used to analyze the data were chi-square, and post-hoc analysis of variance.

Results: About 22% of the tested sample were food secure (FS); 51% were moderately food insecure (MFIS); and 27% were severely food insecure (SFIS). Higher BMI was associated with SFIS patients. After adjusting for age, gender, income, education, and duration of diabetes, body mass index, and caloric consumption; moderate and severe food insecurity were associated with poor glycemic control (p = 0.04).

Conclusion: food insecurity may be associated with glycemic control deterioration in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Body Composition
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology*
  • Diet
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Glycemic Index*
  • Humans
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Jordan
  • Male
  • Malnutrition / physiopathology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Nutrition Assessment
  • Outpatients
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human