Background: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which has effects similar to insulin, reduces blood glucose level, improves insulin sensitivity and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes (GDM).
Objective: The aim of the study was to estimate the concentration of IGF-1 in pregnant women with GDM and 3 months after delivery and find relationships between IGF-1 and clinical and biochemical parameters.
Materials and methods: 67 women between 24th - 28th week of pregnancy were enrolled in the study (46 with GDM and 21 as a control group). All women underwent clinical and biochemical examinations. Concentrations of IGF-1, adiponectin, fasting glucose, insulin, lipids, CRP, fibrinogen were measured during pregnancy, additionally IGF-1 concentration was determined 3 months after delivery.
Results: IGF-1, glucose, insulin, CRP, fibrinogen, lipids concentrations and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in women with GDM than in the control group (p<0.05). A significant decrease in IGF-1 concentration was observed in both groups after delivery. In the GDM group significant correlations between IGF-1 and BMI (r=0.370, p<0.05), insulin (r=0.469, p<0.01) and HOMA-IR (r=0.439, p<0.01) were observed. Regression analysis with IGF-1 as a dependent parameter showed that only BMI and insulin remained as predictors, explaining 32% of plasma IGF-1 variation. Re-evaluation after delivery revealed impaired glucose tolerance in 9% of the population studied.
Conclusions: Increased IGF-1 concentrations in pregnancy complicated with GDM may partly reflect metabolic disturbances, especially insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and may be one of possible compensatory reactions of the organism in response to these disturbances.