A population-based study of inpatient outcomes after operative management of nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage in the United States

World Neurosurg. 2012 Dec;78(6):640-5. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2011.10.042. Epub 2011 Dec 7.


Background: In the United States, data on patient outcomes after operative management of nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have been largely derived from tertiary care academic institutions. Given that outcomes of patients treated at these specialized centers may differ from those treated at community hospitals, our aim was to report patient outcomes on a population-based, national level.

Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) was utilized to identify all patients with a primary diagnosis of nontraumatic ICH (431.xx) who underwent a craniotomy or craniectomy (ICD-9 CCS code 1). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the effects of patient and hospital characteristics on outcome measures.

Results: NIS estimated that 657,428 patients with a primary diagnosis of nontraumatic ICH were admitted between 1993 and 2003 in the United States, 45,159 (6.9%) of whom underwent surgical treatment. The in-hospital mortality rate for surgically treated patients was 27.2%, and the complication rate was 41.2%. The most common complications reported were pulmonary (30.4%), renal (3.2%), and thromboembolic (2.9%). A single postoperative complication increased the mortality rate by 29% and lengthened the hospital stay by 5 days. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that complications and mortality were more likely in patients of African-American descent, and in subjects with 1 or more pre-existing comorbidity. Additionally, the mortality rate was lowest in hospitals that performed the highest volume of operations for nontraumatic ICH (odds ratio = 0.8; 95% confidence interval 0.68 to 0.99).

Conclusions: Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage who undergo craniotomy or craniectomy have a high morbidity and mortality. Male gender, preoperative comorbidities, complications, and low hospital volume were associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / mortality*
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / surgery*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Hospital Mortality / trends
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Inpatients*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neurosurgical Procedures / methods
  • Neurosurgical Procedures / mortality*
  • Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care / methods*
  • Quality Assurance, Health Care / methods*
  • Risk Assessment / methods
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult