Plasmonic-based electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (P-EIS) is developed to investigate molecular binding on surfaces. Its basic principle relies on the sensitive dependence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) signal on surface charge density, which is modulated by applying an ac potential to a SPR chip surface. The ac component of the SPR response gives the electrochemical impedance, and the dc component provides the conventional SPR detection. The plasmonic-based impedance measured over a range of frequency is in quantitative agreement with the conventional electrochemical impedance. Compared to the conventional SPR detection, P-EIS is sensitive to molecular binding taking place on the chip surface and less sensitive to bulk refractive index changes or nonspecific binding. Moreover, this new approach allows for simultaneous SPR and surface impedance analysis of molecular binding processes.
© 2011 American Chemical Society