Purpose of review: The capacity of lithium to induce neutrophilia and increase circulating CD34(+) cells of marrow origin has long been known. Lithium has been the object of hematological investigations for many years, but no definitive use in hematology has yet emerged.
Recent findings: We review the evidence that lithium increases granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and augments G-CSF effects, showing its potential use in stem cell mobilization and engraftment of stem cell transplantation.
Summary: We suggest possible therapeutic uses of lithium in neutropenia. In bone marrow transplantation, preharvest lithium-assisted hematopoietic stem cell mobilization may be useful as well.