Health benefits of garlic and other Allium vegetables (e.g., onions), such as lipid lowering and anticancer effects, are credited to metabolic byproducts, including diallyl trisulfide (DATS). Evidence for anticancer effects of garlic derives from both population-based case-control studies, and clinical and laboratory investigations using purified garlic constituents such as DATS. Studies have shown that DATS can offer protection against chemically-induced neoplasia as well as oncogene-driven spontaneous cancer development in experimental rodents. Mechanisms underlying cancer chemopreventive effects of DATS are not completely understood, but known pharmacological responses to this natural product include alteration in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptotic cell death, suppression of oncogenic signal transduction pathways, and inhibition of neoangiogenesis. This article reviews mechanisms and targets of cancer chemoprevention by DATS.