Realistic reference adult and paediatric phantom series for internal and external dosimetry

Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2012 Mar;149(1):56-9. doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncr383. Epub 2011 Nov 28.


A new generation of realistic, image-based anthropomorphic phantoms has been developed based on the reference masses and organ definitions given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 89. Specific absorbed fractions for internal radiation sources have been calculated for photon and electron sources for many body organs. Values are similar to those from the previous generation of 'stylized' (mathematical equation-based) models, but some differences are seen, particularly at low particle or photon energies, due to the more realistic organ geometries, with organs generally being closer together, and with some touching and overlapping. Extension of this work, to use these phantoms in Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation codes with external radiation sources, is an important area of investigation that should be undertaken.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Computer Simulation*
  • Electrons
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Monte Carlo Method
  • Organ Specificity / radiation effects*
  • Phantoms, Imaging / standards*
  • Photons
  • Radiometry*
  • Reference Standards