Objective: We previously demonstrated in rat plasma the antioxidant protective effect of whole-grain bread, particularly when made from Kamut brand khorasan wheat. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the same experimental breads in rat liver using two different bread-making procedures (baker's yeast and sourdough fermentation).
Methods: Rats were examined in the basal condition and after the administration of doxorubicin, a pro-oxidative agent. The following parameters were measured in liver homogenates: glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase activities, as antioxidant enzymes containing selenium; glutathione, α-tocopherol and β-carotene, as major non-enzymatic cell antioxidants; malondialdehyde and advanced oxidation protein products, as markers of oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, respectively. A histologic evaluation of liver tissue was also conducted.
Results: In agreement with our previous work, we observed a lower oxidative status and a different activity of glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase in rats fed the whole-grain Kamut khorasan bread than in rats fed the modern whole-grain durum wheat bread. Histologic evaluation of the hepatic tissue showed the onset of inflammation in response to doxorubicin only in rats fed the modern durum wheat bread.
Conclusion: Our data confirm that bread made from whole-grain Kamut khorasan protects rats from oxidative stress better than bread made from whole-grain durum wheat. This is consistent with their different antioxidant profiles. The type of wheat used for bread-making appeared to be the main determinant of the observed protective effect.
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