Orbital floor fractures are the most commonly encountered traumatic fractures in the facial skeleton. Mydriasis that is detected during orbital floor fracture reconstruction may cause significant distress to surgeons, as it may be associated with sinister events such as visual loss. It is not an uncommon problem; previous studies have shown the incidence of mydriasis to be 2.1%. The combination of careful preoperative evaluation and planning, as well as specific intraoperative investigations when mydriasis is encountered, can be immensely valuable in allaying surgeons' anxiety during orbital floor fracture reconstruction. In this review article, the authors discuss the common causes of mydriasis and present a novel systematic approach to its diagnostic evaluation devised by our unit that has been successfully implemented since 2008.
Keywords: Orbital floor fracture; anisocoria; ciliary ganglion; mydriasis; optic nerve.