Pathogenic GLUT9 mutations causing renal hypouricemia type 2 (RHUC2)

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2011 Dec;30(12):1105-11. doi: 10.1080/15257770.2011.623685.


Renal hypouricemia (MIM 220150) is an inherited disorder characterized by low serum uric acid levels and has severe complications such as exercise-induced acute renal failure and urolithiasis. We have previously reported that URAT1/SLC22A12 encodes a renal urate-anion exchanger and that its mutations cause renal hypouricemia type 1 (RHUC1). With the large health-examination database of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, we found two missense mutations (R198C and R380W) of GLUT9/SLC2A9 in hypouricemia patients. R198C and R380W occur in highly conserved amino acid motifs in the "sugar transport proteins signatures" that are observed in GLUT family transporters. The corresponding mutations in GLUT1 (R153C and R333W) are known to cause GLUT1 deficiency syndrome because arginine residues in this motif are reportedly important as the determinants of the membrane topology of human GLUT1. Therefore, on the basis of membrane topology, the same may be true of GLUT9. GLUT9 mutants showed markedly reduced urate transport in oocyte expression studies, which would be the result of the loss of positive charges in those conserved amino acid motifs. Together with previous reports on GLUT9 localization, our findings suggest that these GLUT9 mutations cause renal hypouricemia type 2 (RHUC2) by their decreased urate reabsorption on both sides of the renal proximal tubule cells. However, a previously reported GLUT9 mutation, P412R, was unlikely to be pathogenic. These findings also enable us to propose a physiological model of the renal urate reabsorption via GLUT9 and URAT1 and can lead to a promising therapeutic target for gout and related cardiovascular diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acids / genetics
  • Biological Transport
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism
  • Conserved Sequence
  • Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative / chemistry
  • Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy
  • Mutant Proteins / chemistry
  • Mutant Proteins / metabolism
  • Mutation / genetics*
  • Oocytes / metabolism
  • Renal Tubular Transport, Inborn Errors / genetics*
  • Renal Tubular Transport, Inborn Errors / therapy
  • Uric Acid / metabolism
  • Urinary Calculi / genetics*
  • Urinary Calculi / therapy


  • Amino Acids
  • Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative
  • Mutant Proteins
  • SLC2A9 protein, human
  • Uric Acid

Supplementary concepts

  • Renal hypouricemia