Calcium-binding proteins and GFAP immunoreactivity alterations in murine hippocampus after 1 month of exposure to 835 MHz radiofrequency at SAR values of 1.6 and 4.0 W/kg

Neurosci Lett. 2012 Jan 11;506(2):292-6. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2011.11.025. Epub 2011 Nov 25.


Widespread use of wireless mobile communication has raised concerns of adverse effect to the brain owing to the proximity during use due to the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones. Changes in calcium ion concentrations via binding proteins can disturb calcium homeostasis; however, the correlation between calcium-binding protein (CaBP) immunoreactivity (IR) and glial cells has not been determined with different SAR values. Different SAR values [1.6 (E1.6 group) and 4.0 (E4 group) W/kg] were applied to determine the distribution of calbindin D28-k (CB), calretinin (CR), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) IR in murine hippocampus. Compared with sham control group, decreased CB and CR IRs, loss of CB and CR immunoreactive cells and increased GFAP IR exhibiting hypertrophic cytoplasmic processes were noted in both experimental groups. E4 group showed a prominent decrement in CB and CR IR than the E1.6 group due to down-regulation of CaBP proteins and neuronal loss. GFAP IR was more prominent in the E4 group than the E1.6 group. Decrement in the CaBPs can affect the calcium-buffering capacity leading to cell death, while increased GFAP IR and changes in astrocyte morphology, may mediate brain injury due to radiofrequency exposure.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / radiation effects*
  • Cell Phone
  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
  • Hippocampus / metabolism
  • Hippocampus / radiation effects*
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / radiation effects*
  • Radio Waves / adverse effects*


  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • calcium-binding protein (brain)
  • glial fibrillary astrocytic protein, mouse