Doping monolayer graphene with single atom substitutions

Nano Lett. 2012 Jan 11;12(1):141-4. doi: 10.1021/nl2031629. Epub 2011 Dec 7.


Functionalized graphene has been extensively studied with the aim of tailoring properties for gas sensors, superconductors, supercapacitors, nanoelectronics, and spintronics. A bottleneck is the capability to control the carrier type and density by doping. We demonstrate that a two-step process is an efficient way to dope graphene: create vacancies by high-energy atom/ion bombardment and fill these vacancies with desired dopants. Different elements (Pt, Co, and In) have been successfully doped in the single-atom form. The high binding energy of the metal-vacancy complex ensures its stability and is consistent with in situ observation by an aberration-corrected and monochromated transmission electron microscope.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Crystallization / methods*
  • Graphite / chemistry*
  • Macromolecular Substances / chemistry
  • Materials Testing
  • Metals / chemistry*
  • Molecular Conformation
  • Nanostructures / chemistry*
  • Nanostructures / ultrastructure*
  • Particle Size
  • Surface Properties


  • Macromolecular Substances
  • Metals
  • Graphite