We have constructed a molecular karyotype for two strains of Naegleria gruberi using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Each strain has about 23 chromosomes, considerably more than any previous estimate. These chromosomes range in size from 400 kilobasepairs to over 2,000 kilobasepairs. In Naegleria, construction of the DNA karyotype depends on assessment of the anomalous electrophoretic mobility of the circular ribosomal RNA genes. We have determined the chromosomal locations of an identified unique gene (flagellar calmodulin) and four identified multigene families (alpha- and beta-tubulin, actin, ubiquitin), as well as three differentially expressed genes of unknown functions. The ca. 12 actin genes are dispersed over at least seven chromosomes, whereas the majority of the more than eight alpha-tubulin genes are confined to a single chromosome. The ubiquitin genes are found on five chromosomes in one strain and seven in the other and the beta-tubulin genes are on three or four. Our observations provide a foundation for molecular genetic studies in this organism.