Background: Despite increasing prevalence of heart failure (HF) in patients with preserved ejection fraction (PEF), there are no available therapies proven to reduce morbidity and mortality. Aldosterone, a potent stimulator of myocardial and vascular fibrosis, may be a key mediator of HF progression in this population and is therefore an important therapeutic target.
Objective: The TOPCAT trial is designed to evaluate the effect of spironolactone, an aldosterone antagonist, on morbidity, mortality, and quality of life in patients with HF-PEF.
Methods: Up to 3,515 patients with HF-PEF will be randomized in double-blind fashion to treatment with spironolactone (target dose 30 mg daily) or matching placebo. Eligible patients include those with age ≥50 years, left ventricular ejection fraction ≥45%, symptomatic HF, and either a hospitalization for HF within the prior year or an elevated natriuretic peptide level (B-type natriuretic peptide ≥100 pg/mL or N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide ≥360 pg/mL) within the 60 days before randomization. Patients with uncontrolled hypertension and those with known infiltrative or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are excluded. The primary end point is the composite of cardiovascular death, hospitalization for HF, or aborted cardiac arrest. Key secondary end points include quality of life, nonfatal cardiovascular events, and new-onset atrial fibrillation. Ancillary studies of echocardiography, tonometry, and cardiac biomarkers will provide more insight regarding this understudied population and the effects of spironolactone therapy.
Conclusion: TOPCAT is designed to assess definitively the role of spironolactone in the management of HF-PEF.
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