mTOR inhibitor-associated proteinuria in kidney transplant recipients

Transplant Rev (Orlando). 2012 Jan;26(1):27-9. doi: 10.1016/j.trre.2011.10.003.


The use of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor (mTOR-I) after kidney transplantation has been associated with a higher incidence of proteinuria compared with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). This review will focus on mTOR-I-associated proteinuria in different settings after kidney transplantation: de novo mTOR-I treatment in combination with CNI, de novo mTOR-I-containing and CNI-free treatment, early conversion from a CNI-based regimen to an mTOR-I-based regimen, and late conversion. Some possible mechanisms of mTOR-I-induced proteinuria will also be reviewed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Disease Progression
  • Everolimus
  • Graft Rejection / enzymology
  • Graft Rejection / prevention & control*
  • Graft Survival / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects*
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Kidney Transplantation*
  • Proteinuria / chemically induced*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sirolimus / adverse effects
  • Sirolimus / analogs & derivatives
  • Sirolimus / therapeutic use
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors*


  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Everolimus
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Sirolimus