Y-STR analysis is an invaluable tool to examine evidence in sexual assault cases and in other forensic casework. Unambiguous detection of the male component in DNA mixtures with a high female background is still the main field of application of forensic Y-STR haplotyping. In the last years, powerful technologies including a 17-locus multiplex PCR assay have been introduced in the forensic laboratories. At the same time, statistical methods have been developed and adapted for interpretation of a nonrecombining, linear marker as the Y-chromosome which shows a strongly clustered geographical distribution due to the linear inheritance and the patrilocality of ancestral groups. Large population databases, namely the Y-STR Haplotype Reference Database (YHRD), have been established to assess the evidentiary value of Y-STR matches by means of frequency estimation methods (counting and extrapolation).