Background: This study aimed to investigate the associations of hyperfiltration and hypofiltration with prediabetes and prehypertension.
Methods: The study subjects included 99 140 people aged 20-89 years who underwent health checkups in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The prevalence of hyperfiltration [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) above the age-/sex-specific 95th percentile] and hypofiltration (eGFR below the age-/sex-specific 5th percentile) was compared among stages of prediabetes (fasting plasma glucose <100, 100-109, 110-125 and ≥126 mg/dL for no prediabetes, Stage 1 prediabetes, Stage 2 prediabetes and diabetes, respectively) and prehypertension [blood pressure (BP) <120/80, 120-129/80-84, 130-139/85-89 and ≥140/90 mmHg for no prehypertension, Stage 1 prehypertension, Stage 2 prehypertension and hypertension, respectively).
Results: The prevalence of hyperfiltration increased with increasing stage of prediabetes [odds ratios (ORs): 1.29, 1.58 and 2.47 for Stage 1 prediabetes, Stage 2 prediabetes and diabetes, respectively] and prehypertension (ORs: 1.10, 1.33 and 1.52 for Stage 1 prehypertension, Stage 2 prehypertension and hypertension, respectively). Hypofiltration was not associated with prediabetes or prehypertension.
Conclusions: The prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration increased with increasing stages of prediabetes and prehypertension. Therefore, kidney function should be monitored in subjects with prediabetes or prehypertension. In subjects with hyperfiltration, earlier treatment of hyperglycemia and high BP may be necessary to prevent the development of kidney damage.