Voluntary medical male circumcision: an introduction to the cost, impact, and challenges of accelerated scaling up

PLoS Med. 2011 Nov;8(11):e1001127. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001127. Epub 2011 Nov 29.


Scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention is cost saving and creates fiscal space in the future that otherwise would have been encumbered by antiretroviral treatment costs. An investment of US$1,500,000,000 between 2011 and 2015 to achieve 80% coverage in 13 priority countries in southern and eastern Africa will result in net savings of US$16,500,000,000. Strong political leadership, country ownership, and stakeholder engagement, along with effective demand creation, community mobilisation, and human resource deployment, are essential. This collection of articles on determining the cost and impact of VMMC for HIV prevention signposts the way forward to scaling up VMMC service delivery safely and efficiently to reap individual- and population-level benefits.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Africa, Eastern / epidemiology
  • Africa, Southern / epidemiology
  • Circumcision, Male / economics*
  • Circumcision, Male / statistics & numerical data
  • Delivery of Health Care / economics
  • Delivery of Health Care / methods
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / economics
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections / prevention & control*
  • Health Care Costs / statistics & numerical data*
  • Health Promotion / economics*
  • Health Promotion / methods
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Preventive Health Services / economics
  • Preventive Health Services / methods*