Voluntary medical male circumcision: matching demand and supply with quality and efficiency in a high-volume campaign in Iringa Region, Tanzania

PLoS Med. 2011 Nov;8(11):e1001131. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001131. Epub 2011 Nov 29.


The government of Tanzania has adopted voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as an important component of its national HIV prevention strategy and is scaling up VMMC in eight regions nationwide, with the goal of reaching 2.8 million uncircumcised men by 2015. In a 2010 campaign lasting six weeks, five health facilities in Tanzania's Iringa Region performed 10,352 VMMCs, which exceeded the campaign's target by 72%, with an adverse event (AE) rate of 1%. HIV testing was almost universal during the campaign. Through the adoption of approaches designed to improve clinical efficiency-including the use of the forceps-guided surgical method, the use of multiple beds in an assembly line by surgical teams, and task shifting and task sharing-the campaign matched the supply of VMMC services with demand. Community mobilization and bringing client preparation tasks (such as counseling, testing, and client scheduling) out of the facility and into the community helped to generate demand. This case study suggests that a campaign approach can be used to provide high-volume quality VMMC services without compromising client safety, and provides a model for matching supply and demand for VMMC services in other settings.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Circumcision, Male / methods
  • Circumcision, Male / statistics & numerical data*
  • Delivery of Health Care* / organization & administration
  • Directive Counseling
  • HIV Infections / diagnosis
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections / prevention & control*
  • Health Facilities / statistics & numerical data
  • Health Facilities / supply & distribution
  • Health Personnel / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Male
  • National Health Programs / organization & administration
  • Patient Care Team / statistics & numerical data
  • Tanzania / epidemiology
  • Workforce