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. 2011 Dec 5;10:226.
doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-10-226.

Inhibitory Potential of omega-3 Fatty and Fenugreek Essential Oil on Key Enzymes of Carbohydrate-Digestion and Hypertension in Diabetes Rats

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Free PMC article

Inhibitory Potential of omega-3 Fatty and Fenugreek Essential Oil on Key Enzymes of Carbohydrate-Digestion and Hypertension in Diabetes Rats

Khaled Hamden et al. Lipids Health Dis. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: diabetes is a serious health problem and a source of risk for numerous severe complications such as obesity and hypertension. Treatment of diabetes and its related diseases can be achieved by inhibiting key digestives enzymes-related to starch digestion secreted by pancreas.

Methods: The formulation omega-3 with fenugreek terpenenes was administrated to surviving diabetic rats. The inhibitory effects of this oil on rat pancreas α-amylase and maltase and plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) were determined.

Results: the findings revealed that administration of formulation omega-3 with fenugreek terpenenes (Om3/terp) considerably inhibited key enzymes-related to diabetes such as α-amylase activity by 46 and 52% and maltase activity by 37 and 35% respectively in pancreas and plasma. Moreover, the findings revealed that this supplement helped protect the β-Cells of the rats from death and damage. Interestingly, the formulation Om3/terp modulated key enzyme related to hypertension such as ACE by 37% in plasma and kidney. Moreover administration of fenugreek essential oil to surviving diabetic rats improved starch and glucose oral tolerance additively. Furthermore, the Om3/terp also decreased significantly the glucose, triglyceride (TG) and total-cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) rates in the plasma and liver of diabetic rats and increased the HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-Ch) level, which helped maintain the homeostasis of blood lipid.

Conclusion: overall, the findings of the current study indicate that this formulation Om3/terp exhibit attractive properties and can, therefore, be considered for future application in the development of anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive and hypolipidemic foods.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Inhibitory effect of formulation Om3/terp on α-amylase and maltase activities in pancreas and plasma and blood glucose rate on surviving diabetic rats. Values are given as mean ± SD for group of 10 animals each. Values a re statistically presented as follows: *P < 0.05 significant differences compared to controls. #P < 0.05 significant differences compared to diabetic rats day0. @P < 0.05 significant differences compared to diabetic rats day60. δp < 0.05 significant differences compared to diabetic rats treated with omega-3 fatty acid rich omega-3 fatty acid rich fenugreek essential oil. εP < 0.05 significant differences compared to diabetic rats treated with FO.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Effect of formulation Om3/terp on glucose (A) and oral starch tolerance test (B) in of control and experimental groups of rats. Statistical analyses as given in Figure legend 1.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Change in the plasma and liver omega fatty acids in diabetic rats treated with formulation Om3/terp. Statistical analyses as given in Figure legend 1.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Effect of formulation Om3/terp administration to surviving diabetic rats on pancreas architecture. Figure 3 presents the histopathological examination of pancreas. In control rat, the pancreas shows normal islets (Con). In alloxan-treated rats pancreas a severe β-Cells atrophy was shown where the most pancreatic islets were completely empty after 8 weeks of alloxan administration (Diab day60). In formulation Om3/terp treated diabetic rats; a patent protective action of β-Cells was shown and only initial stages of atrophy of β-Cells were observed (Diab + For).
Figure 5
Figure 5
Relative activity of ACE in plasma of control and experimental groups of rats. Statistical analyses as given in Figure legend 1.

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