Modified natural clinoptilolite detoxifies small mammal's organism loaded with lead II: genetic, cell, and physiological effects

Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012 Jun;147(1-3):206-16. doi: 10.1007/s12011-011-9289-1. Epub 2011 Dec 6.


The detoxification capacity of the clinoptilolite modification KLS-10-MA used as food additive in small mammals, chronically lead-exposed, was proven for the first time. The modified clinoptilolite was prepared based on natural Bulgarian clinoptilolite deposits. As a powder, it was mechanically mixed at 12.5% concentration with the conventional forage for small rodents. Lead in the form of aqueous solution of Pb(NO(3))(2) was diluted in the drinking water. In the ecotoxicological experiment covering 90 days, imprinting control region laboratory mice were used. They were allocated into four groups: group 1, (control): animals fed with conventional food for small rodents and water; group 2: animals fed with conventional food + clinosorbent KLS-10-MA and water; group 3: animals fed with conventional food and water + Pb(NO(3))(2); and group 4: animals fed with conventional food + KLS-10-MA and water + Pb(NO(3))(2). A group of non-exposed healthy animals was fed with conventional forage mixed with KLS-10-MA to prove eventual toxicity of the sorbent and influence on growth performance. The changes in the chromosome structure, mitotic index, erythrocyte form, erythropoiesis, and body weight gain were recorded. On day 90, the following relations were established: Pb-exposed and clinoptilolite-supplemented mice exhibited 2.3-fold lower chromosome aberrations frequency, 2.5-fold higher mitotic index, and 1.5-fold higher percentage normal erythrocytes 1.3-fold higher body weight compared to Pb-exposed and unsupplemented animals. The obtained data showed that the sorbent is practically non-toxic. The results of the present study encourage a further elaboration of a reliable drug based on the tested substance in the cases of chronic lead intoxication.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adsorption
  • Algorithms
  • Animals
  • Body Weight / drug effects
  • Bulgaria
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Chromosome Aberrations / drug effects*
  • Erythrocytes / drug effects*
  • Erythrocytes / pathology
  • Erythropoiesis / drug effects
  • Lead / administration & dosage
  • Lead / pharmacokinetics
  • Lead / toxicity*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Mitotic Index
  • Models, Biological
  • Models, Genetic
  • Nitrates / administration & dosage
  • Nitrates / pharmacokinetics
  • Nitrates / toxicity
  • Time Factors
  • Zeolites / chemistry
  • Zeolites / pharmacology*


  • Nitrates
  • clinoptilolite
  • Zeolites
  • Lead
  • lead nitrate